Chelidonine: Effect of chelidonine on growth, invasion, angiogenesis and gene expression in head and neck cancer cell lines

The greater celandine Chelidonium majorus and its principal alkaloid chelidonine have been demonstrated to have an extremely high level of cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Additionally, chelidonine has been suggested to have anti-metastatic and pro-apoptotic properties. Chelidonine inhibited cell growth for all the tested HNSCC cell varieties, including a paclitaxel-resistant and the P-glycoprotein (MDR1) overexpressing cell line; however, it did not do so in a distinct dose-dependent way. Furthermore, Chelidonine was unable to induce an apoptosis in physiological levels in HNSCC cell cells. Based on a spheroid-invasion model, chelidonine inhibited the FaDu cell invasion effectively using fibronectin, gelatin, the Collagen-I molecule, as well as laminin as well as Matrigel (r).

However, inhibition of charge of the more aggressively invaded cell line HLaC78 was largely unsuccessful. By using the tube formation assay, chelidonine prevented angiogenesis. Analysis of expression revealed an increase of the metabolic genes of xenobiotics, CYP1A1, and MDR1 through chelidonine.

Studies conducted by scientists on the Chelidonine

Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is among the most frequent cancer-related causes that kill people worldwide. Unfortunately, the overall cure of HNSCC is lower than 50%, and in the case of metastasis, patients are only given an expected life expectancy of 6 up to 10 months. This is despite the development of new treatment methods. Thus, substances that stop tumor growth and invasion could be beneficial. There are many online chemical stores in the online market. If you want to buy research chemicals online there are many online trusted chemical stores. You can visit.

Chelidonium majorus is the greater celandine. It has been utilized for centuries in monastic medicine to combat various common diseases. It is explained in depth in Jonathan Hartwell’s Compendium of Plants employed against Cancer’. Chelidonine is an alkaloid of isoquinoline and is the principal alkaloid of Chelidonium major. It has been proven to have anti-cancer effects in a range of tumor models. However, results from studies published about the efficacy and cancer-selectivity of the chelidonine compound remain in the debate. 

Forms available

Chelidonine has a few forms which are synthesized similarly and which are structurally alike, including: (+)-homochelidonine, (+)-chelamine, and (-)-norchelidonine are tertiary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids with partially hydrogenated B and C rings. They are found in a variety of species of plants belonging to the family of Papaveraceae. The two first species have been removed from the roots of Chelidonium majorus. As minor alkaloids. Enantiomeric (+)-norchelidonine has been discovered in C. Majorus.


Chelidonine is a critical bioactive isoquinoline alkaloid in Chelidonium major. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a diverse structural class of specialized metabolites from plants with a long-standing research history. A limited range of a family of enzymes has been involved with BIA metabolism. While some enzymes display a comprehensive range of substrates, some are extremely specific to their substrate.

A handful of species of plants, including the Opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum) and the other species belonging to the Ranunculales, have been identified as models to investigate BIA metabolism. Recently, the rise of proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics has led to the discovery of novel BIA biosynthetic enzymes.


Chelidonine is an isolate of Papaveraceae with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (a nonspecific cholinesterase) inhibitory activity. AChE (acetylcholinesterase) inhibitors or anti-cholinesterases inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase from breaking down ACh, increasing the neurotransmitter action’s level and duration. Based on their mechanism, AChE inhibitors can be classified into two categories: irreversible and Reversible.

Reversible inhibitors, either competitive or non-competitive, are used for therapeutic purposes, whereas toxic impacts are often associated with irreversible AChE activity moderators. These reversible AChE inhibitors play a crucial function in the pharmacological control of enzyme activity. These inhibitors comprise compounds with various functional groups (carbamate and quaternary, or the ammonium tertiary group) as well as have been employed in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple ailments like myasthenia gravis, AD, post-operative ileus and the bladder, glaucoma, as well as an antidote to anticholinergic overdose.

Final thoughts

In conclusion, Chelidonine appeared to exert only a minor effect on neck and head cancer cells. In addition, Chelidonine did not cause particular cell-type-specific cytotoxicity that was dose-dependent or induce Apoptosis in a significant way.